Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1923-2861 print, 1923-287X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Endocrinol Metab and Elmer Press Inc
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Original Article

Volume 8, Number 5, October 2018, pages 100-105

Evaluation of Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Foot Infections of Patients With Diabetes: Does Antibiotic Susceptibility Change?


Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of the Patients and Presence of Chronic Complications
N (%)Mean ± SD
*No patients in Wagner stages 0 and 1.
Age (year)63.1 ± 10.9
Duration of diabetes (year)16.9 ± 6.9
  Female12 (23.5%)
  Male39 (77.5%)
Neuropathy50 (98%)
Nephropathy44 (86%)
Retinopathy48 (94%)
Peripheral arterial disease40 (78.4%)
Wagner stage*
  Wagner 25 (9.6%)
  Wagner 333 (63.5%)
  Wagner 414 (26.9%)
Osteomyelitis47 (90.4%)
Amputation46 (90.1%)


Table 2. Types of Microorganisms Identified in the Wound Cultures of the Patients
BacteriaTotal (N)
Gram-positive microorganisms96
  Enterococcus faecalis28
  Staphylococcus aureus23
  Staphylococcus epidermidis18
  Other CNS9
  Streptococcus agalactiae8
  Streptococcus dysgalactiae4
  Streptococcus viridans3
  Enterococcus avium2
  Streptococcus pyogenes1
Gram-negative microorganisms101
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa16
  Morganella morganii15
  Escherichia coli13
  Acinetobacter baumannii11
  Proteus mirabilis11
  Serratia marcescens6
  Klebsiella pneumoniae5
  Citrobacter koseri4
  Providencia rettgeri3
  Klebsiella oxytoca2
  Citrobacter braakii2
  Citrobacter freundii2
  Enterobacter cloacae2
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia3
  Proteus penneri1
  Proteus vulgaris1
  Providencia alcalifaciens1
  Providencia stuartii1
  Serratia liquefaciens1
  Sphingomonas paucimobilis1
  Candida species1


Table 3. The Rates of Amputation in Regard to Mono Microbial and Poly Microbial Reproductions, and Gram-Staining Properties of the Pathogens
Characteristic of reproductionNumber (N)Amputation N (%)Osteomyelitis N (%)
Mono microbial8574 (87%)54 (64%)
Poly microbial5452 (98%)40 (75%)
All are Gram-positive12
All are Gram-negative7


Table 4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Microorganisms Identified in Culture Media
MicroorganismType of resistanceResistance (N)/total (N) (%)
In S. aureus
Methicillin resistance5/11 (45%)
Quinolone resistance7/20 (35%)
TMP/SMX resistance2/15 (13%)
Clindamycin resistance7/15 (47%)
Methicillin resistance19/22 (86%)
In Enterobacteriaceae
ESBL positivity5/12 (42%)
Quinolone resistance25/34 (74%)
P. aeruginosa
Carbapenem resistance6/17 (35%)
Quinolone resistance6/15 (40%)
Aminoglycoside resistance3/15 (20%)
In Enterococcus species
Ampicillin resistance12/30 (40%)
Vancomycin resistance0/27 (0%)
In A. baumannii
Carbapenem resistance8/11 (73%)
Aminoglycoside resistance6/11 (55%)